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Terms related to heat treatment

2024-04-20

Contents Annealing Heating steel to a specific temperature, holding it for a certain period, and then allowing it to cool slowly is called annealing. Steel annealing is when the steel is heated to the temperature of the phase change or part of the phase change after holding it in a slowly cooled heat treatment method. The purpose of annealing is to eliminate organizational defects, improve the organization so that the composition of the uniformity and grain refinement, improve the mechanical properties of steel, and reduce residual stress; at the same time, it can reduce the hardness, improve the plasticity and toughness, and improve the performance of cutting and machining. So, annealing eliminates and improves the organization of the previous process left defects and internal stress, but also for the subsequent process to prepare, so annealing is a semi-finished heat treatment, also known as pre-finish heat treatment. Normalizing Normalizing is to heat the steel above the critical temperature so that all the steel is transformed into a homogeneous austenite and then naturally cooled in the air heat treatment method. It can eliminate the over-eutectic steel network carburization body, for sub-eutectic steel normalizing can refine the lattice and improve the overall mechanical properties, and the requirements of the parts are not high with normalizing instead of annealing process is more economical. Quenching Quenching is a heat treatment method in which steel is heated above a critical temperature, held for some time, and then quickly placed into a quenchant to reduce its temperature abruptly and cool it rapidly at a rate more significant than the critical cooling rate while obtaining an unbalanced organization dominated by martensite. Quenching increases the strength and hardness of steel but reduces its plasticity. The quenching agents commonly used are water, oil, alkaline water, and salt solutions. Tempering It…

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Cooling Ways during the forging of titanium alloys

2024-04-18

In the industrial field, titanium alloy is a more commonly used material. Titanium alloy forging demands strict requirements and is widely used in aerospace, medical equipment, chemical, and other fields; in the process of titanium alloy forging, the choice of cooling method has a significant impact on the quality of forgings, according to the performance of forgings to choose a different cooling method, the following is a few of the titanium alloy forging cooling methods that I have organized. natural cooling Natural cooling is a simple and commonly used method of cooling. After forging, the titanium alloy forgings are placed in the air and cooled by natural convection and radiant heat dissipation. The advantage of this method is that it is simple to operate and requires no additional equipment or energy consumption. However, natural cooling is slow and may lead to uneven internal forging organization, affecting the product’s performance. Forced air cooling Forced air cooling accelerates the cooling speed of titanium alloy forgings by forcing air to blow on them through fans or air-blowing equipment. This can reduce the forging temperature, minimize thermal stress, and improve product performance. However, it should be noted that forced air cooling may lead to oxidation and hardening phenomena on the surface of the forging, so it is necessary to control the cooling speed and blowing distance reasonably. Water quenching and cooling Water quenching cooling is a fast and effective cooling method. By immersing a titanium alloy forging in water, its temperature can be rapidly reduced, resulting in higher strength and hardness. However, water quench cooling can also lead to problems such as cracks and deformation of the forgings, so the cooling rate and temperature gradient must be carefully controlled. Oil quenching and cooling Oil quenching is a method of cooling oil at a specific temperature. Oil quenching has…

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Introduction to the mechanical properties of steel

2024-04-16

Contents   1. yield point(0σs) When the steel or sample is stretched, when the stress exceeds the elastic limit, even if the stress does not increase, the steel or specimen still continues to undergo obvious plastic deformation, which is called yield. The minimum stress value of the yield phenomenon is the yield point. Let Ps be the external force at the yield point s, and Fo is the sample break area, then the yield point σ s = Ps / Fo (MPa) MPa is called the Mpa equal to N (Newton) / mm2 (MPa=106Pa, Pa: Pasca = N/m2) 2. Yield Strength (0σ 0.2) The yield point of some metal materials is not obvious and is difficult to measure. Therefore, to measure the yield characteristics of the material, the stress when the permanent residual plastic deformation is equal to a certain value (generally 0.2% of the original length) is stipulated, which is called conditional yield strength or yield strength σ 0.2. 3. Tensile strength (0σ b) The maximum stress value achieved from the material’s beginning to the fracture time during stretching indicates the size of the steel’s ability to resist breaking. It corresponds to the tensile strength, compressive strength, bending strength, etc. Let Pb be the maximum tensile force before the material is pulled and Fo is the section area of the sample, so the tensile strength σ b = Pb / Fo (MPa). 4. Elongation rate (0δs) After the material is pulled, the percentage of its plastic elongation length to the length of the original sample is called elongation or elongation rate. 5. Fion ratio (0σs/0σb) The ratio of yield point (yield strength) to tensile strength of steel is called the yield strength ratio. The greater the bending strength ratio, the higher the reliability of the structural parts. Carbon steel’s…

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Tube VS Pipe

2024-04-16

PIPE — Standard Pipe TUBE — non-standard tube Tubes manufactured to ANSI and API standard specifications are called PIPE, and their dimensions are expressed as “nominal diameter.” All other tubes not manufactured to standard tube specifications are called TUBE or TUBING, and their dimensions are expressed in terms of outside diameter. Tube is a positive deviation tube with heat exchange.Pipe is a positive or negative deviation tube without heat exchange. Note: ANSI – American National Standards Institute (ANSI – American National Standards Institute) 1. the difference between sizes Tube and Pipe have standards; the standard series of tubes is more than Pipe. The pipe DN standard is not the outer diameter but is slightly smaller than the outer diameter and larger than the inner diameter. Can also do non-standard 2. the difference between the usage The tube is generally used in the container, especially the heat exchanger tube, and Pipe refers to more equipment outside the Pipe, so the general tube is translated as “pipe,” and Pipe is translated as “pipe.” The difference between Tube, Pipe, Tubing, and piping. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is very strict about the meaning of the terms tube, Pipe, Tubing, and piping, which are used in different applications. I have summarized my understanding of the four terms below for your discussion.1. The tube is round or has a continuous perimeter of any other cross-sectional shape of the hollow product. The dimensions of a round tube can be specified in terms of any two of the three diameters: outside diameter, inside diameter, and wall thickness.2, The Pipe by ASNI B36.10 and B36.19 (for stainless steel) is listed in the nominal size of the round cross-section of the tube, and its diameter is expressed in NPS No. NPS No. The actual outside diameter is…

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titanium alloy tubes for aerospace applications

2024-04-14

Aircraft piping system The piping system is the lifeline of the aircraft; its performance directly affects the overall performance of the aircraft. If the engine is compared to the heart of the airplane, then all kinds of pipelines are like the blood vessel network of the aircraft, which constantly delivers all sorts of nutrients to all corners of the airplane. The reliability and durability of the piping system are essential factors that affect flight safety, reduce maintenance costs, and meet airworthiness requirements, so it is very important to improve the piping system’s technical level to improve the airplane’s performance.As an advanced lightweight structural material, titanium alloy has excellent comprehensive performance with low density, high specific strength, good fatigue strength and crack extension resistance, excellent corrosion resistance, good welding performance, etc. Therefore, it has an increasingly wide range of applications in aviation, aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, energy and other industries. About 80% of titanium production is used in aviation and aerospace. Due to the development of titanium alloy tubes and processing technology is very difficult, coupled with the expensive titanium alloy materials, so its application in the application of the limitations is currently mainly in the industrial corrosion resistance and relatively wide range of applications in the ship, such as seawater installations, nuclear power, saline, and alkali industries, as well as ships and so on. But abroad, due to the development of titanium alloy tubing and supporting the development of mature application technology, titanium alloy tubing in developed countries, aviation, aerospace, and other fields have specific applications, such as foreign advanced aircraft air intake piping, hydraulic piping, fuel piping, etc. are widely used titanium alloy tubing. Due to the development of titanium alloy tubing in China, bending and tube fitting technology is not yet fully mature, and titanium alloy tubing in civil…

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Titanium Tubing Price Online

2024-04-12

Titanium Tubing FD Titanium offers titanium tubing in grades 2(CP), 5(6Al-4V), 9(3Al-2.5V), and 12(Ti-Mo-Ni). All the sizes are custom-made according to your requirements. If you have drawings that need machining, please share them with us. We will offer you the titanium components directly. OD: Out Dimension (mm)WT: Wall Thickness (mm)KG/M: Weight Kilogram/Meter Our custom-made MOQ for each size is 50 ~ 100 Kg if there’s no stock. If you have any interesting or questions, please do not hesitate to contact us below.

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3Al-2.5V Titanium Seamless Tube – Inspection & Testing

2024-04-09

Aerospace Tube (3Al-2.5V) – Inspection & Testing   J11 Aircraft – Chinese Airforce For critical tubing applications such as aerospace, not only must the tubing be of a very high quality, but the testing and inspection methods must provide positive assurance that all specification requirements have been met. Test and inspection methods must be in accordance with industry standards, and the measurement must be precise and accurate. To assure the quality of the tubing, specifications and test methods must be clearly defined in the quality assurance plan and records must be traceable to each tube lot. These records are retained for many years to provide traceability in event that problems may arise during service life of the tubing. FD Titanium has more than 10 years of experience in 3Al-2.5V Seamless Tubes. meet the Specifications AMS4943, AMS4945. If you have any questions or requirements, please contact us by email or leave a message below. Inspection for 3Al-2.5V Tube Every tube in each lot is inspected to ensure conformance to dimensional tolerances, surface finish requirements and freedom from obvious visual flaws. Nearly all specifications now require that the full length of each tube be subjected to all aspects of the inspection process. Only in rare cases is inspection by a sampling plan employed for products of hydraulic tube quality. Visual inspection for 3Al-2.5V Tube Visual inspection of the tubing is the first step of the inspection process. It is also performed again just prior to packaging as a final check for proper marking, cleanliness and any handling damage that may have occurred after the initial inspection. The inspection methods for tubing dimensions may be accomplished by several methods including: hand micrometer, air gauges, laser micrometer or ultrasonic testing (UT). The choice of test method depends upon the importance of dimensions to the…

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Titanium Bar & Rod

2024-04-07

Titanium bars are a solid metal with good flexibility, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. They also have excellent impact resistance and high strength and can withstand tremendous pressure. In addition, titanium bars have a low density, which can reduce weight and save energy. Titanium Bar Performance ● Low Density and High Strength ● Excellent Corrosion Resistance ● Good resistance to the effect of heat ● Excellent Bearing on cryogenic property ● Nonmagnetic and Non-toxic ● Good thermal properties Titanium bars are used extensively in the medical, aerospace, and chemical industries. FD Titanium offers a titanium bar of good quality at a reasonable price. If you have any questions or requests. Please let us know by sending an email to [email protected] Grades of Titanium Bar Titanium bars are available in a variety of grades. The most common grades are GR1, GR2, GR3, GR4, GR5, GR7, GR9, GR23. ● Grade 1 can be used in the drawing parts for its good elongation and corrosion resistance. ● Grade 2 is used most widely in commercially pure titanium ● Grade 3 is almost used in pressure vessels. ● Grade 4 can be used in some fittings parts and fastening pieces, but complex shapes need 300 degrees Celsius to form. ● Alloy grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V) is widely used in titanium alloys because of its comprehensive mechanical and chemical properties. ● Alloy grade 7 adds little palladium in CP titanium and has the most excellent corrosion resistance; of course, it costs more. ● Alloy grade 9 (Ti-3Al-2.5V) is widely used in golf clubs and bicycle girders. ● Alloy grade 23, ELI (extra low interstitial), can be used in the medical appliance. Chemical Composition of Titanium Bar Mechanical Properties of Titanium Bar Specification of Titanium Bar ASTM B348 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets AMS 4928 Titanium Alloy Bars, Wire, Forgings, Rings, and Drawn Shapes (6Al-4V), Annealed ASTM F67 Unalloyed Titanium for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R50250,…

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Grade 9 Titanium for Bicycle frames and Wheelchairs

2024-04-07

INCREASE YOUR SALES REVENUE 5x WITHOUT CHURNING YOUR CUSTOMER BECAUSE FABRICATING YOUR BRAND’S BICYCLE OR WHEELCHAIR FRAMEWITH OUR TITANIUM (3Al-2.5V) GRADE 9 TUBES, THERE ARE ZERO COMPLAINS.WHY?BECAUSE WE ARE THE BEST TITANIUM SUPPLIERTOTALLY DIFFERENT THAN YOUR CURRENT SUPPLIERHOW?BE OUR GUEST FOR 02 MINUTES When we talk about a material’s sustainability, we refer to its quality and lifecycle and how it will differentiate your product from your competitors. Our Titanium Grade 9 (3Al-2.5V) tubes have been outstanding over the past years, with a total output of 600+ tons in supply to various businesses. WE CLAIM TO PROVIDE Ti 3Al-2.5V. Let’s take you briskly through the production process to generate the Grade 9 Titanium. The extraction process is convoluted and, therefore, expensive. First, the titanium sponge is created through delicate steps of formation of titanium chloride. The titanium sponge is hydraulically compressed to produce compacts, and then, in the purest titanium, 3% aluminum and 2.5% Vanadium are added to produce Ti 3Al-2.5V. WHAT MAKES US UNIQUE Our Seamless Titanium tubes have been unique since the beginning because we follow exquisite procedures to extrude these seamless tubes you may not have heard of before. In the US, almost all high-end bicycle and wheelchair frames are manufactured using 3Al-2.5V tubes compliant with ASTM B-338, an aerospace material-compliant standard. Therefore, they are rugged, light, and robust. Some suppliers compromise the tube’s integrity by adding surplus or scrap material. However, we provide you with all the certificates required to test the material using rigorous criteria. DO YOU KNOW? Our Titanium is Vacuum Annealed Our titanium is vacuum annealed before and after undergoing the Pilger mill. Due to work on the job, the tube gets hardened. It builds stresses; therefore, to relieve these stresses, we pass through an additional process of vacuum annealing to avoid brittle failure during Pilger mill or mitigate residual…

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Titanium Tube

2024-04-07

Are You Looking for Titanium Tubes? Titanium tubes are hollow cylinders crafted from titanium, which is renowned for its exceptional strength, lightweight nature, and corrosion resistance. Titanium’s powerhouse properties suit various uses, from aircraft components to weaponry and sports equipment like golf clubs. These tubes stand out for their lightweight design, corrosion resistance, and lack of susceptibility to rust. FD Titanium has more than 15 years of experience in titanium tube manufacturing. We offer tubes of good quality at a reasonable price. If you have any questions or requests about Grade 2, Grade 9 (Ti-3Al-2.5V) or Grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V). Please let us know by sending an email to [email protected] Welded Titanium Tube Seamless Titanium Tube Titanium Alloy Tubing Low finned & Ribbed Titanium Tube What is a Titanium Tube? Have you ever marveled at the extraordinary performance of aerospace vehicles? Enter titanium tube – the unsung hero of high-performance engineering. These are not just any tubes; they are precision-engineered cylinders that harness the extraordinary properties of titanium. Renowned for its strength, lightweight nature, and corrosion resistance, titanium is the material of choice for applications that demand the absolute best. You might not realize it, but titanium tubes are likely present in many aspects of your life. Titanium’s versatility knows no bounds, from the gear you use at the gym to the technologies that protect our military. It’s not just about performance; titanium tubes also offer safety benefits, thanks to their ability to withstand extreme temperatures and resist fatigue under repeated stress. Specifications of Titanium Tube Titanium tubes are available in various specifications and grades to meet the demands of different applications. Common grades include Grade 2 and Grade 9, each offering different levels of strength and corrosion resistance. We provide a range of sizes from 1/4-inch OD up to 6-inch…

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